Tandem analytics techniques
IBA is a broad term that covers several specific techniques, mainly:
-Rutherford Backscattering Spectrometry (RBS). RBS is a non-destructive and multielemental analysis technique. With RBS, it is possible to obtain elemental depth profiles and to determine elemental compositions (stoichiometry) without using standards. Furthermore, surface impurities and in-depth impurity distribution can be established. The thickness of thin films and interfaces can also be measured with RBS. On the other hand, the lattice location of impurities and the defect distribution depth profile in single crystalline samples are determined by Channelling-RBS.
-Elastic Recoil Detection Analysis (ERDA). This technique is based on the physical principles of elastic scattering. It requires heavier ions in the beam in order to recoil light nuclei from the sample. ERDA is an efficient technique for high resolution depth profiling.
-Nuclear Reaction Analysis (NRA. Particle Induced ɣ-Ray Emission (PIGE). Light-element depth profiles are obtained non-destructively with NRA and elements such as H, D, Li, B, C, O and F can be analyzed. This technique is complementary to RBS, but NRA is isotopically sensitive. It is possible to carry out PIGE if gamma radiation is one of the NRA products. PIGE is usually employed in Na, Mg, Al, Si and P measurements.
-Particle Induced X-Ray Emission (PIXE) Analysis. PIXE is a non-destructive technique which is used to obtain multielemental information of trace elements and major elements. It is used jointly with RBS for accurate mass identification of medium to heavy elements with similar masses and with NRA and PIGE for the study of elements with Z < 12.
Different atomic and nuclear processes are induced when the samples are exposed to the ion beam. In these processes, several products are induced and each product provides information about material properties (composition, structure, etc.)
In the last years we have developed two new techniques not available at the CNA. The Ionoluminescence (IL), which analyses the light emitted by a sample bombarded with an ion beam and the Ion Beam Induced Charge (IBIC), which allows the study of transport properties in semiconductor detectors.
Besides these analysis techniques, the centre has capability for modification of materials. It should be highlighted that ion implantation has supposed a revolution in microelectronics, metallurgy or the manufacturing of biological implants. Most of the work in this field has been carried out with small electrostatic accelerators that accelerate ions from some tens to some hundreds of keV. Nowadays, the implantation at higher energies (some MeV) is becoming more and more important because it affords deeper implantation profiles. The CNA implantation line allows material irradiation work and the analysis of the effects produced by the bombardments.
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